This grand hotel was named after the historically significant Gadsden Purchase. The purchase of 30,000 square miles from Mexico in 1853 for 10 million dollars was negotiated by John Gadsden the American Ambassador to Mexico. The land was purchased to ensure territorial rights for a practical southern railroad route to the pacific coast.
The Gadsden Hotel was designed by famed architect Henry Trost. Trost dominated the architectural scene in the southwest and designed hundreds of buildings in El Paso, Albuquerque, Phoenix, Tucson and San Angelo including the University of Texas El Paso. He was from the Chicago School of Architecture and specialized in designing what he referred to as “arid America”.
The hotel opened for business in November 1907. Imagine Arizona before it was a state and at a time when Wyatt Earp, Geronimo and Pancho Villa rode rough shod over the west. The hotel provided gracious hospitality to the growing business brought in by nearby mines and the settling of the territory. The hotel soon became a meeting place for cattlemen, ranchers, miners and businessmen.
On February 7, 1929, fire ripped through the hotel leaving nothing but the marble staircase. Like much of Arizona’s old west figures and culture, it was just too tough to die. The hotel was immediately rebuilt but on a grander scale with no expense spared.
Not many hotels of the day could boast about having an electric lift to reach one of its 4 floors. Travelers were amazed at the modern accommodations. The lift, still in use, is one of the oldest manually operated elevators west of the Mississippi. The hotel was one of the first to feature individual bathrooms in all 160 air cooled rooms. The hotel still has the original 1929 telephone switchboard; reportedly the first of its kind to be used in Arizona. Plans are under way to create a hotel museum highlighting the many historical and cultural aspects of the hotel.
An authentic Tiffany stained glass mural runs a full 42 feet on one mezzanine wall, one of the few western scenes created by Tiffany & Co. A gorgeous stained glass skylight brings in the golden Arizona light and illuminates the impressive lobby. The grand staircase is white Italian marble as are the massive columns in the center of the lobby, which are covered in 14k gold leaf valued at $20,000 in 1929.
Throughout the 20th century, the Gadsden was a happening place. Hollywood discovered the Grande dame and many movies, TV shows and videos were filmed in the hotel and in Douglas. By the 1980’s the hotel was showing her age, until successful North Dakota grain farmer and aviator, Hartman Brekhus and his wife purchased the hotel in 1988. Since then, Mr. Brekhus owned and operated the hotel up until 2016 when Mr. Brekhus passes away which left the hotel for sale. Local couple Rosa Anel and her husband Florencio, Lopez have always admired the Gadsden and understood its place in the community of Douglas. The lopez’ decided to purchase the hotel in late 2016 and plan to renovate the hotel and bring it back to the prestige it once was.
The Douglas area was first settled by the Spanish in the 18th century. Douglas was founded as an American smelter town for the prosperous copper mines in Bisbee, AZ. The town is named after mining pioneer Dr. James Douglas, and was incorporated in 1902. Two copper smelters operated at the site; the Calumet and Arizona Company Smelter and the Copper Queen.
The area also has a history of cattle ranching and agriculture dating back to the 1800’s that continues to thrive to this day. The region also figures prominently in the history of the old west. Cochise County was home to many famous historical figures such as Cochise, Geronimo, John Slaughter, Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday and their stories played out across the tapestry and grasslands of Cochise County.
The San Bernardino Ranch is a site in the Southern San Bernardino Valley in the region of the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge. It is significant for its association with the beginning of cattle ranching in southern Arizona and northern Mexico. The ranchland and valley are part of the headwater region of the Yaqui River.
In 1911, during the conflict known as the Border War, a United States Army camp was established at the ranch and was called Camp San Bernardino Ranch or the Slaughter Ranch Outpost. The site is now known as the Slaughter Ranch, for it once was the home of a famous Old West gunfighter, “Texas John Slaughter.” The compound includes the ranch house, wash house, ice house, granary, car shed and commissary. The car shed contains a fully restored 1915 Model T Ford.
On June 28, 1854, the valley became part of the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico. The original Mexican land grant of 73,240 acres, where the ranch sits today, was purchased by Ignacio Perez in 1822 for 90 pesos. He was chased from his land by Apaches in the 1830’s. In 1884 John Slaughter purchased 65,000 acres from Perez’s heirs for approximately $80,000. Two-thirds of his property lay in Mexico, with the remaining third in the Arizona Territory. An interesting note is that there are ruins on the property now owned by the US Fish & Wildlife Service where a Mormon employee of Slaughter’s built a home (called the Mormon House) straddling the US-Mexico border so he could keep a wife in the US and a wife in Mexico. The home has two rooms, one on each side of the border, with a breezeway connecting them.
The El Paso and Southwestern Railroad depot was an important train station. It transported copper to large manufacturing concerns in the east. The depot is considered one of the finest examples of railway architecture of the early 20th century. The building is now used for the Douglas police station and is just one of 400 buildings on the National Register of Historic Places in Douglas.
The Douglas Grand Theater was built in 1919 and was the largest theater between Los Angeles and San Antonio. Ginger Rogers, Anna Pavlova and John Phillip Sousa are some of the famous faces to have graced the theater’s stage. It also housed a tea room, candy store and barbershop in its glory days. Today the theater is undergoing a reconstruction, using private donations of money, supplies and labor.